On 12/4/2014 2:04 PM, Patricia Schmidt wrote: > Part of his early research (nearly > 20 years ago) was on finding mundane patents of arms that had been given > in the area of rapier combat. That would be fascinating. To my reasonably-good knowledge, there is no such thing (outside the SCA) as a Patent of Arms. There is no shortage of elevations to the nobility or bestowal of armorial bearings for all KINDS of stuff, toward the end of period, when the whole concept of feudalism was breaking down. Amusingly, the London Masters of Defense was not a chivalric order - it was a money-making machine that had a Royal monopoly. While newly installed members swore oaths to the London Masters of Defense, there was no feudalism involved, and not answering noble making reciprocal feudal promises in return. Tibor -- Manage your subscription at http://listserv.unl.edu. listserv.unl.edu lists do not accept incoming email from Yahoo.com, AOL.com or Dropbox.com due to their DMARC policies.