Therefore, all specimens included by the author in the description, and 
not excluded by the author, are the type series. All specimens listed as 
being used to characterize the species are, as a body, the type series 
(not species, sorry about that, thanks Dan Young).  The idea that a 
reviewer would say "paratypes are only the adults, larvae should not be 
paratypes" is not correct, correct? Asking both "can be" which seems 
obvious, but "should be" as well.


On 7/5/2017 3:27 PM, Doug Yanega wrote:
> On 7/5/17 1:08 PM, Michael A. Ivie wrote:
>> Question for the group. The Code Says:
>> 72.4.1. The type series of a nominal species-group taxon consists of 
>> all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon...
>> 72.4.5. When an author designates a holotype [Art. 73.1 
>> <>], 
>> then the other specimens of the type series are paratypes.
>> If a species is described and diagnosed on the basis of both the 
>> adult and larva, the larvae used are part of the types species under 
>> 72.4.1, and the specimens are paratypes under 72.4.5, no?
> Maybe, depending on when this was published. The key here is the term 
> "included" in 72.4.1. Prior to 2000, ANY evidence can be used to 
> determine what is included in the type series (Art., but 
> after 1999, to be *included*, the specimens involved must be 
> explicitly listed and unambiguously identifiable based solely on what 
> is written in the description. Your comment about explicit exclusion 
> pretty much only applies to names before 2000, because after 1999, 
> *inclusion* became explicit (i.e., the "default" switched in the new 
> Code; instead of everything being a paratype unless specified 
> otherwise, everything is now NOT a paratype unless specified otherwise).
> Peace,
> -- 
> Doug Yanega      Dept. of Entomology       Entomology Research Museum
> Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314     skype: dyanega
> phone: (951) 827-4315 (disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
>    "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
>          is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82


Michael A. Ivie, Ph.D., F.R.E.S.

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