Therefore, all specimens included by the author in the description, and not excluded by the author, are the type series.  All specimens listed as being used to characterize the species are, as a body, the type series (not species, sorry about that, thanks Dan Young).  The idea that a reviewer would say "paratypes are only the adults, larvae should not be paratypes" is not correct, correct? Asking both "can be" which seems obvious, but "should be" as well.


On 7/5/2017 3:27 PM, Doug Yanega wrote:
[log in to unmask]" type="cite">
On 7/5/17 1:08 PM, Michael A. Ivie wrote:
[log in to unmask]">

Question for the group. The Code Says:

72.4.1. The type series of a nominal species-group taxon consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon...

72.4.5. When an author designates a holotype [Art. 73.1], then the other specimens of the type series are paratypes.

If a species is described and diagnosed on the basis of both the adult and larva, the larvae used are part of the types species under 72.4.1, and the specimens are paratypes under 72.4.5, no?

Maybe, depending on when this was published. The key here is the term "included" in 72.4.1. Prior to 2000, ANY evidence can be used to determine what is included in the type series (Art., but after 1999, to be included, the specimens involved must be explicitly listed and unambiguously identifiable based solely on what is written in the description. Your comment about explicit exclusion pretty much only applies to names before 2000, because after 1999, *inclusion* became explicit (i.e., the "default" switched in the new Code; instead of everything being a paratype unless specified otherwise, everything is now NOT a paratype unless specified otherwise).

Doug Yanega      Dept. of Entomology       Entomology Research Museum
Univ. of California, Riverside, CA 92521-0314     skype: dyanega
phone: (951) 827-4315 (disclaimer: opinions are mine, not UCR's)
  "There are some enterprises in which a careful disorderliness
        is the true method" - Herman Melville, Moby Dick, Chap. 82


Michael A. Ivie, Ph.D., F.R.E.S.

NOTE: two addresses with different Zip Codes depending on carriers

US Post Office Address:
Montana Entomology Collection
Marsh Labs, Room 50      
PO Box 173145
Montana State University                
Bozeman, MT 59717

UPS, FedEx, DHL Address:
Montana Entomology Collection
Marsh Labs, Room 50      
1911 West Lincoln Street
Montana State University                
Bozeman, MT 59718

(406) 994-4610 (voice)
(406) 994-6029 (FAX)
[log in to unmask]