Doug,

I think you are adding opinion to the text.  Let's look at this:

72.4.1. The type series of a nominal species-group taxon consists of all the specimens included by the author in the new nominal taxon (whether directly or by bibliographic reference), except any that the author expressly excludes from the type series [Art. 72.4.6], or refers to as distinct variants (e.g. by name, letter or number), or doubtfully attributes to the taxon.

Nowhere do I find support for your statement "but after 1999, to be included, the specimens involved must be explicitly listed and unambiguously identifiable based solely on what is written in the description." There is no qualification of "included" beyond that they are stated to be included.

Further, your statement: "'Paratypes: 30 females, 20 males, 20 larvae, various dates and localities' then none of these are actually paratypes, because there are no dates or localities or other identifying information given" is not supported. They are included as required by 72.4.1. In fact, even a holotype does not have to even have a date or locality to be valid. "A single unlabeled specimen found in a box in the back of the UCR collection is the only known representative of this species.  It bears a Holotype label."  Totally available.

I just keep looking, because disagreeing with you on Code is usually a losing stance, but I find no support for your statements.

Mike



On 7/5/2017 5:31 PM, Doug Yanega wrote:
[log in to unmask]" type="cite">On 7/5/17 4:17 PM, Michael A. Ivie wrote:

Therefore, all specimens included by the author in the description, and not excluded by the author, are the type series.

Post-1999, yes.

  All specimens listed as being used to characterize the species are, as a body, the type series

As long as they are listed explicitly, and treated as part of the type series. If, for example, the OD only says "Paratypes: 30 females, 20 males, 20 larvae, various dates and localities" then none of these are actually paratypes, because there are no dates or localities or other identifying information given.

The idea that a reviewer would say "paratypes are only the adults, larvae should not be paratypes" is not correct, correct?

That is the reviewer's personal opinion, not anything in the Code.

Peace,


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Michael A. Ivie, Ph.D., F.R.E.S.

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