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Print and put this on one of your Hymenoptera cabinets for future
generations.

Feel free to add to or edit and re-share.

Cheers,

Mike

On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 2:58 PM David Redei <[log in to unmask]> wrote:

> Also: does the directionality of the symbol matter? It seems well agreed
>> that ♀ means "female." But if the symbol is turned upwards like so: ♁,
>> does it mean "male" or "female" ?
>>
>
> Yes, it matters. The "reverse female symbol" (a "+" on top of a circle)
> generally means male. So, if something is directed upwards, or obliquely
> upwards, either a little arrow, or a cross, that is generally male.
> Sometimes you can see some other solutions as well, e.g. consider this:
> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_96704-23page_750_mode_1up&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=G72MqZq627wctaapsCDgQmkZv1OtcweW5ZnMMric2oA&e= 
> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_96704-23page_750_mode_1up&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=0yaeOoAz_KbMqyXJ2M0acfotebiRU9Lnt89nBLG8hbI&s=RbQ4i6T8oUuheixiLOIMk8U14YhLQJDdvrl2ryfxde8&e=>
> In vol. 15, p. 264 for both Harpactor dudae and Edocla albipennis (and for
> many other spp. in the same article) you will see a small cross (x) placed
> obliquely right upwards to a circle. It superficially looks similar to a
> standard male symbol (Mars' spear, where the spear is directed obliquely
> upwards), but the spear/arrow itself is replaced by an "x" -- or if you
> have a careful look you will see that the "x" is in fact rather a "+"
> rotated by 45 degrees. This most certainly means a male (I studied all
> specimens mentioned in this paper, and all individuals referred to with
> this unusual symbol were turned out to be males). These strange solutions
> were usually used for technical reasons -- note that in the above linked
> issue the standard, arrow-like male symbol occurs abundantly in the first
> several pages up to p. 256, but from that point they were fully replaced by
> the "circle and x" male symbols up to the end of the issue. The printing
> company apparently did not have enough metal letters (so-called *sorts or
> types*, cf. "*type*setting") for the male symbol (a rather unusual,
> rarely used symbol, which was however needed in a big amount for taxonomic
> publications like this one), therefore after he ran out of the available
> sorts, the typesetter replaced it with a circle and a closely placed "+"
> (rotated by 45 degrees) sort on the printing form.
>
> With best regards, David Redei
>
> On Tue, 21 Apr 2020 at 01:38, Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
> wrote:
>
>> Also: does the directionality of the symbol matter? It seems well agreed
>> that ♀ means "female." But if the symbol is turned upwards like so: ♁,
>> does it mean "male" or "female" ?
>>
>>
>> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 12:59 PM Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
>> wrote:
>>
>>> Aha! Jason, this is exactly the sort of thing I was hoping to find.
>>>
>>> The entry on "sex" is also illuminating:
>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_1330748&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=o90PuUZK-9nx9Sc3MufFZ6ameGCOVXUUY5JWlvwBFiM&e= 
>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_1330748&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=vJ81TAxHW0CuA09aIqz_0B1FeW_VuOFQp853A-czT60&s=DU1lgnDFlfZ7LHWBKLxcMgcRSpPJpnTSjYzlD7wgl4k&e=>
>>> "Sex: as a number, six: the physical difference between male and female:
>>> usually indicated by the sign of Mars (♂) for male, and Venus (♀) for
>>> female ; workers or undeveloped females have the sign of Venus without the
>>> cross line ..., or a combination of the two others ( ☿ )."
>>>
>>> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 12:53 PM Jason Gibbs <[log in to unmask]>
>>> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Smith (1906) Explanation of terms used in entomology. Brooklyn
>>>> Entomological Society, page 88.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_16806-23page_102_mode_1up&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=hSYeNOSvMpNAZZAcmcniUAMicZkXjX9JhiQ20hEmPkg&e= 
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_16806-23page_102_mode_1up&d=DwMGaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=TLJRC--5vRozM9EL60Zz1eHeSMNTixuF3oZhPgj4tpY&s=5m3st8FNvjCeGIaG8zGynUEqm14U3tevlioQCc0MmFg&e=>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Under ‘neuter’ includes the mercury symbol (with the little horns) and
>>>> an imperfect Venus symbol (missing the horizontal line of the cross) to
>>>> represent workers.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Jason Gibbs
>>>> Assistant Professor
>>>> Department of Entomology
>>>> Curator, J. B. Wallis / R. E. Roughley Museum of Entomology
>>>> University of Manitoba
>>>> 12 Dafoe Rd.,
>>>>
>>>> Animal Science/Entomology Bldg. Rm. 213
>>>> Winnipeg, MB, Canada
>>>> R3T 2N2
>>>> Phone: (204) 474-7485
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> *From:* Entomological Collections Network Listserve <
>>>> [log in to unmask]> *On Behalf Of *Tommy McElrath
>>>> *Sent:* April 20, 2020 11:17 AM
>>>> *To:* [log in to unmask]
>>>> *Subject:* Re: Sex determination symbols
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> *Caution:* This message was sent from outside the University of
>>>> Manitoba.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Rachel,
>>>>
>>>> I would love to get an actual reference for this as well. We have many
>>>> bee specimens at INHS with the “☿” symbol that I had to double check
>>>> was “worker/non-reproductive female”. As a coleopterist, when I started at
>>>> INHS, it was first time coming across the symbol, and it will doubtless be
>>>> unfamiliar to many students and volunteers who work in the collection, or
>>>> with people who are transcribing determination labels.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> *--*
>>>>
>>>> *TOMMY MCELRATH*
>>>> *Insect Collection Manager*
>>>>
>>>> Illinois Natural History Survey
>>>> Prairie Research Institute
>>>> University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
>>>> 1816 S. Oak Street | M/C 652
>>>> Champaign, IL 61820
>>>> 217-300-5938 | [log in to unmask]
>>>> insect.inhs.illinois.edu
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__insect.inhs.illinois.edu_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=bG9yNPcW9v54ikGPErnb2Mta31_0zTg4EzsIbhiIdsI&e=>
>>>>
>>>> [image: facebook]
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.facebook.com_INHSInsects_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=xBT8N9OA7avvgAXylXh-xVrGSvw17iszpi1Ugtyvtf8&e=>
>>>>     [image: instagram]
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.instagram.com_inhsinsects_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=IxgSQAaTMlFB3WEBCTvfCW6YAdkadX7mibBdgQx2mAE&e=>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__illinois.edu_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=2SKdUjZMkACZOiFnjCESfjC8HzdXMUV9d5Q21HoWRIE&e=>
>>>>
>>>> *Under the Illinois Freedom of Information Act any written
>>>> communication to or from university employees regarding university business
>>>> is a public record and may be subject to public disclosure. *
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> On Apr 20, 2020, at 11:10 AM, Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
>>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Does anyone have a good reference source on the different types of sex
>>>> determination symbols or caste determination symbols that are used in
>>>> entomological collections? We've come across some older variations and want
>>>> to make sure we are interpreting them consistently.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> For example: does this refer to male or female? ♁
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> I know there are some specific conventions in social insects as well
>>>> and would be interested to hear from those folks as well.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> To be clear, I'm asking about symbols like ♂, ♀, ☿,  ♃, etc. (many of
>>>> which can also be found depicted here:
>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Planet-5Fsymbols&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=bNc7MoQ08S9HUamHeAs0SgkCfNHOsKfVxGBNJAyj_-8&e= 
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Planet-5Fsymbols&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=F_Gt5Sv53a-t_-mqGHfB9ul5u_m25auJSGckxmo2n7s&s=XLXwYV-scIfQwZ9mt-HsuhjsCCtuk6Ny1Qzn-GPnvRQ&e=>
>>>> )
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Thanks!
>>>>
>>>> Rachel
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --
>>>>
>>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>>>
>>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>>>
>>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>>>
>>>> Harvard University
>>>>
>>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>>>
>>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>
>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>> Harvard University
>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>
>>
>>
>> --
>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>
>> Curatorial Assistant
>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>> Harvard University
>> 26 Oxford St.
>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>
>

-- 
Michael L. Ferro
Collection Manager, Clemson University Arthropod Collection (CUAC)
Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences
277 Poole Agricultural Center
Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0310
OFFICE: 307 Long Hall
[log in to unmask] (preferred)
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