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Thanks, Mike! Charlie Covell also responded to me off-list and indicated
that the ♁ symbol is an archaic usage, indicating male.

I have also seen ♃ (the sign for Jupiter) used in Hymenoptera publications
to indicate caste of "major," "soldier," or "dinergate". I will probably
include that when I print this handy sheet out.
For example, Forel uses this symbol in his publications, see p. 205 under
M. bombycinus https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_12278951&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=Uc9qaArl-JtmiQrvIk8RYyaS9fCYD81rleZ7Vkvjv44&e= . It is also
explicitly stated in "British Ants: Their Life-history and Classification"
on page 42 here: https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_16979668&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=C5d-4NXSRDR6VhKngxbt-cENWJz2fZjL-SwuKJOmC5w&e= 


On Wed, Apr 22, 2020 at 12:26 PM Mike Ferro <[log in to unmask]>
wrote:

> Print and put this on one of your Hymenoptera cabinets for future
> generations.
>
> Feel free to add to or edit and re-share.
>
> Cheers,
>
> Mike
>
> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 2:58 PM David Redei <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
>> Also: does the directionality of the symbol matter? It seems well agreed
>>> that ♀ means "female." But if the symbol is turned upwards like so: ♁,
>>> does it mean "male" or "female" ?
>>>
>>
>> Yes, it matters. The "reverse female symbol" (a "+" on top of a circle)
>> generally means male. So, if something is directed upwards, or obliquely
>> upwards, either a little arrow, or a cross, that is generally male.
>> Sometimes you can see some other solutions as well, e.g. consider this:
>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_96704-23page_750_mode_1up&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=-tFFZ2n1hnw8pl40xrRFoTana3bitU7uHElFsAsw9A0&e= 
>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_96704-23page_750_mode_1up&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=0yaeOoAz_KbMqyXJ2M0acfotebiRU9Lnt89nBLG8hbI&s=RbQ4i6T8oUuheixiLOIMk8U14YhLQJDdvrl2ryfxde8&e=>
>> In vol. 15, p. 264 for both Harpactor dudae and Edocla albipennis (and for
>> many other spp. in the same article) you will see a small cross (x) placed
>> obliquely right upwards to a circle. It superficially looks similar to a
>> standard male symbol (Mars' spear, where the spear is directed obliquely
>> upwards), but the spear/arrow itself is replaced by an "x" -- or if you
>> have a careful look you will see that the "x" is in fact rather a "+"
>> rotated by 45 degrees. This most certainly means a male (I studied all
>> specimens mentioned in this paper, and all individuals referred to with
>> this unusual symbol were turned out to be males). These strange solutions
>> were usually used for technical reasons -- note that in the above linked
>> issue the standard, arrow-like male symbol occurs abundantly in the first
>> several pages up to p. 256, but from that point they were fully replaced by
>> the "circle and x" male symbols up to the end of the issue. The printing
>> company apparently did not have enough metal letters (so-called *sorts
>> or types*, cf. "*type*setting") for the male symbol (a rather unusual,
>> rarely used symbol, which was however needed in a big amount for taxonomic
>> publications like this one), therefore after he ran out of the available
>> sorts, the typesetter replaced it with a circle and a closely placed "+"
>> (rotated by 45 degrees) sort on the printing form.
>>
>> With best regards, David Redei
>>
>> On Tue, 21 Apr 2020 at 01:38, Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
>> wrote:
>>
>>> Also: does the directionality of the symbol matter? It seems well agreed
>>> that ♀ means "female." But if the symbol is turned upwards like so: ♁,
>>> does it mean "male" or "female" ?
>>>
>>>
>>> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 12:59 PM Rachel Hawkins <
>>> [log in to unmask]> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Aha! Jason, this is exactly the sort of thing I was hoping to find.
>>>>
>>>> The entry on "sex" is also illuminating:
>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_1330748&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=dup_ceOf8YqhNPByvUZ20CFHj2ZCHlkSOwOBObTHx5Q&e= 
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_1330748&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=vJ81TAxHW0CuA09aIqz_0B1FeW_VuOFQp853A-czT60&s=DU1lgnDFlfZ7LHWBKLxcMgcRSpPJpnTSjYzlD7wgl4k&e=>
>>>> "Sex: as a number, six: the physical difference between male and
>>>> female: usually indicated by the sign of Mars (♂) for male, and Venus (♀)
>>>> for female ; workers or undeveloped females have the sign of Venus without
>>>> the cross line ..., or a combination of the two others ( ☿ )."
>>>>
>>>> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 12:53 PM Jason Gibbs <[log in to unmask]>
>>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> Smith (1906) Explanation of terms used in entomology. Brooklyn
>>>>> Entomological Society, page 88.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_16806-23page_102_mode_1up&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=wbRDIshlrujRoloH5SwSpFMdP8aQR4n33RnkYYV6IoY&e= 
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_16806-23page_102_mode_1up&d=DwMGaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=TLJRC--5vRozM9EL60Zz1eHeSMNTixuF3oZhPgj4tpY&s=5m3st8FNvjCeGIaG8zGynUEqm14U3tevlioQCc0MmFg&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Under ‘neuter’ includes the mercury symbol (with the little horns) and
>>>>> an imperfect Venus symbol (missing the horizontal line of the cross) to
>>>>> represent workers.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Jason Gibbs
>>>>> Assistant Professor
>>>>> Department of Entomology
>>>>> Curator, J. B. Wallis / R. E. Roughley Museum of Entomology
>>>>> University of Manitoba
>>>>> 12 Dafoe Rd.,
>>>>>
>>>>> Animal Science/Entomology Bldg. Rm. 213
>>>>> Winnipeg, MB, Canada
>>>>> R3T 2N2
>>>>> Phone: (204) 474-7485
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> *From:* Entomological Collections Network Listserve <
>>>>> [log in to unmask]> *On Behalf Of *Tommy McElrath
>>>>> *Sent:* April 20, 2020 11:17 AM
>>>>> *To:* [log in to unmask]
>>>>> *Subject:* Re: Sex determination symbols
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> *Caution:* This message was sent from outside the University of
>>>>> Manitoba.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Rachel,
>>>>>
>>>>> I would love to get an actual reference for this as well. We have many
>>>>> bee specimens at INHS with the “☿” symbol that I had to double check
>>>>> was “worker/non-reproductive female”. As a coleopterist, when I started at
>>>>> INHS, it was first time coming across the symbol, and it will doubtless be
>>>>> unfamiliar to many students and volunteers who work in the collection, or
>>>>> with people who are transcribing determination labels.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> *--*
>>>>>
>>>>> *TOMMY MCELRATH*
>>>>> *Insect Collection Manager*
>>>>>
>>>>> Illinois Natural History Survey
>>>>> Prairie Research Institute
>>>>> University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
>>>>> 1816 S. Oak Street | M/C 652
>>>>> Champaign, IL 61820
>>>>> 217-300-5938 | [log in to unmask]
>>>>> insect.inhs.illinois.edu
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__insect.inhs.illinois.edu_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=bG9yNPcW9v54ikGPErnb2Mta31_0zTg4EzsIbhiIdsI&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>> [image: facebook]
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.facebook.com_INHSInsects_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=xBT8N9OA7avvgAXylXh-xVrGSvw17iszpi1Ugtyvtf8&e=>
>>>>>     [image: instagram]
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.instagram.com_inhsinsects_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=IxgSQAaTMlFB3WEBCTvfCW6YAdkadX7mibBdgQx2mAE&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__illinois.edu_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=2SKdUjZMkACZOiFnjCESfjC8HzdXMUV9d5Q21HoWRIE&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>> *Under the Illinois Freedom of Information Act any written
>>>>> communication to or from university employees regarding university business
>>>>> is a public record and may be subject to public disclosure. *
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Apr 20, 2020, at 11:10 AM, Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Does anyone have a good reference source on the different types of sex
>>>>> determination symbols or caste determination symbols that are used in
>>>>> entomological collections? We've come across some older variations and want
>>>>> to make sure we are interpreting them consistently.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> For example: does this refer to male or female? ♁
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> I know there are some specific conventions in social insects as well
>>>>> and would be interested to hear from those folks as well.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> To be clear, I'm asking about symbols like ♂, ♀, ☿,  ♃, etc. (many of
>>>>> which can also be found depicted here:
>>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Planet-5Fsymbols&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=HTOjUc_Z2j9QyE8OcUun1FEgUcNJAIjLEE18FU5b4MI&e= 
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Planet-5Fsymbols&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=F_Gt5Sv53a-t_-mqGHfB9ul5u_m25auJSGckxmo2n7s&s=XLXwYV-scIfQwZ9mt-HsuhjsCCtuk6Ny1Qzn-GPnvRQ&e=>
>>>>> )
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks!
>>>>>
>>>>> Rachel
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> --
>>>>>
>>>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>>>>
>>>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>>>>
>>>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>>>>
>>>>> Harvard University
>>>>>
>>>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>>>>
>>>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --
>>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>>
>>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>>> Harvard University
>>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>
>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>> Harvard University
>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>
>>
>
> --
> Michael L. Ferro
> Collection Manager, Clemson University Arthropod Collection (CUAC)
> Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences
> 277 Poole Agricultural Center
> Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0310
> OFFICE: 307 Long Hall
> [log in to unmask] (preferred)
> [log in to unmask]
> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__sites.google.com_site_clemsonarthropodcollection_&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=8k-pzsZfdlkD7BB5BWeuGbVIj4Rnv6Di1f_DupJPIVk&e= 
> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__sites.google.com_site_clemsonarthropodcollection_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=XKZULBEHfjCApUGX11Y8yfvjgdEkTimCcGlqut1IO_g&e=>
> Subject Editor: The Coleopterists Bulletin; Insecta Mundi
> Residue Photos:
> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_EVknqBNJO28tfcHg2&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=lJLEB-LTGD1y7wspV24O3LbqGlzgiQtQhgpAoOIxCko&e= 
> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_EVknqBNJO28tfcHg2&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=ngPqG4L5aBPNryEmI4GrYwQIJ9nur9dMKjd9sJS0e8I&e=>
> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_KWJY6VHoFybAq8FL2&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=a58H_iVjJ598BAaPyz0xZXW0w_jGebLaiV8hStzSZPU&s=f5yBzXQCcDWQfqoYrVKYmQlP3-YFv8hiwz6_dxuEhAQ&e= 
> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_KWJY6VHoFybAq8FL2&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=FBBBh7QQpQCDUWYIPiWS8VjB63zD9tlFC5pw9i20qfI&e=>
>


-- 
Rachel L. Hawkins

Curatorial Assistant
Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
Museum of Comparative Zoology
Harvard University
26 Oxford St.
Cambridge MA 02138