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Nice compilation/explanation, Mike.

In Windows 10 other codings for male and female (using the numeric keypad)
that work in some programs are Alt-11 for ♂ and Alt-12 ♀ for female, as
listed in the attached file. The only drawback--visible here--is that they
are usually made with very fine lines and cannot be bolded. In my current
version of Word, Access, and Excel, in some fonts they come out like this,
larger and filled: ♂ ♀  Note that the unicode method given in the document
works in Word, but not in Excel/Powerpoint/Access/gmail.  The alt-codes
work in Windows Notepad. You can also copy Word-generated unicode versions
into notepad and they look the same as the alt-code ones in some fonts, but
not others, where they are thick like the Word ones but of course without
color fill. Weird inconsistencies, seeming to indicate that font designers
and/or code developers don't regard them as important enough to worry
about!


Stay safe and healthy, everyone,
Margaret

*Margaret K. Thayer, Ph.D.*  she/her
Curator Emerita and Lecturer (Committee on Evolutionary Biology)
Field Museum and University of Chicago
O: 312.665.7741 (direct)

Field Museum
1400 S. Lake Shore Drive
Chicago IL 60605
fieldmuseum.org FMNH personal web page
<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__fieldmuseum.org_users_margaret-2Dthayer&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=lRu0dqLOKBiizrrGgSdzDEiTbYshs6OafI1IDJqz57E&e= >
FMNH Insects collection database
<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__www.fieldmuseum.org_explore_department_zoology_insects_collections&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=-5VRAcPGOrWZp5vzhbrGmYr3pLyUdo4-so9LNbr8RoI&e= >
 Austral Staphylinidae & Staphyliniformia
<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__archive.fieldmuseum.org_peet-5Fstaph_&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=j3kYTnisPVGOAWIVvv2wl7a75jl491sgJ8kfJpC6kn4&e= >


<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__fieldmuseum.org&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=LfHApx_CBqnYPymHH13b7-ZQgjLVqAiFIR0lOdPFwKc&e= >



On Wed, Apr 22, 2020 at 11:26 AM Mike Ferro <[log in to unmask]>
wrote:

> Print and put this on one of your Hymenoptera cabinets for future
> generations.
>
> Feel free to add to or edit and re-share.
>
> Cheers,
>
> Mike
>
> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 2:58 PM David Redei <[log in to unmask]> wrote:
>
>> Also: does the directionality of the symbol matter? It seems well agreed
>>> that ♀ means "female." But if the symbol is turned upwards like so: ♁,
>>> does it mean "male" or "female" ?
>>>
>>
>> Yes, it matters. The "reverse female symbol" (a "+" on top of a circle)
>> generally means male. So, if something is directed upwards, or obliquely
>> upwards, either a little arrow, or a cross, that is generally male.
>> Sometimes you can see some other solutions as well, e.g. consider this:
>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_96704-23page_750_mode_1up&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=8oVK052ADi9f_chKYWiqH6hsz9odlQQFeqwlJBRM9_Q&e= 
>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_96704-23page_750_mode_1up&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=0yaeOoAz_KbMqyXJ2M0acfotebiRU9Lnt89nBLG8hbI&s=RbQ4i6T8oUuheixiLOIMk8U14YhLQJDdvrl2ryfxde8&e=>
>> In vol. 15, p. 264 for both Harpactor dudae and Edocla albipennis (and for
>> many other spp. in the same article) you will see a small cross (x) placed
>> obliquely right upwards to a circle. It superficially looks similar to a
>> standard male symbol (Mars' spear, where the spear is directed obliquely
>> upwards), but the spear/arrow itself is replaced by an "x" -- or if you
>> have a careful look you will see that the "x" is in fact rather a "+"
>> rotated by 45 degrees. This most certainly means a male (I studied all
>> specimens mentioned in this paper, and all individuals referred to with
>> this unusual symbol were turned out to be males). These strange solutions
>> were usually used for technical reasons -- note that in the above linked
>> issue the standard, arrow-like male symbol occurs abundantly in the first
>> several pages up to p. 256, but from that point they were fully replaced by
>> the "circle and x" male symbols up to the end of the issue. The printing
>> company apparently did not have enough metal letters (so-called *sorts
>> or types*, cf. "*type*setting") for the male symbol (a rather unusual,
>> rarely used symbol, which was however needed in a big amount for taxonomic
>> publications like this one), therefore after he ran out of the available
>> sorts, the typesetter replaced it with a circle and a closely placed "+"
>> (rotated by 45 degrees) sort on the printing form.
>>
>> With best regards, David Redei
>>
>> On Tue, 21 Apr 2020 at 01:38, Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
>> wrote:
>>
>>> Also: does the directionality of the symbol matter? It seems well agreed
>>> that ♀ means "female." But if the symbol is turned upwards like so: ♁,
>>> does it mean "male" or "female" ?
>>>
>>>
>>> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 12:59 PM Rachel Hawkins <
>>> [log in to unmask]> wrote:
>>>
>>>> Aha! Jason, this is exactly the sort of thing I was hoping to find.
>>>>
>>>> The entry on "sex" is also illuminating:
>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_1330748&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=Aknt-e23d83aC_dqijFDYS_mtV7Au79joMBhfk4i5yc&e= 
>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_page_1330748&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=vJ81TAxHW0CuA09aIqz_0B1FeW_VuOFQp853A-czT60&s=DU1lgnDFlfZ7LHWBKLxcMgcRSpPJpnTSjYzlD7wgl4k&e=>
>>>> "Sex: as a number, six: the physical difference between male and
>>>> female: usually indicated by the sign of Mars (♂) for male, and Venus (♀)
>>>> for female ; workers or undeveloped females have the sign of Venus without
>>>> the cross line ..., or a combination of the two others ( ☿ )."
>>>>
>>>> On Mon, Apr 20, 2020 at 12:53 PM Jason Gibbs <[log in to unmask]>
>>>> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>> Smith (1906) Explanation of terms used in entomology. Brooklyn
>>>>> Entomological Society, page 88.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_16806-23page_102_mode_1up&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=-XirnkXlwxnEbZ7R3hWSluLkJbZN3KXaMb6aFwp6C6A&e= 
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.biodiversitylibrary.org_item_16806-23page_102_mode_1up&d=DwMGaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=TLJRC--5vRozM9EL60Zz1eHeSMNTixuF3oZhPgj4tpY&s=5m3st8FNvjCeGIaG8zGynUEqm14U3tevlioQCc0MmFg&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Under ‘neuter’ includes the mercury symbol (with the little horns) and
>>>>> an imperfect Venus symbol (missing the horizontal line of the cross) to
>>>>> represent workers.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Jason Gibbs
>>>>> Assistant Professor
>>>>> Department of Entomology
>>>>> Curator, J. B. Wallis / R. E. Roughley Museum of Entomology
>>>>> University of Manitoba
>>>>> 12 Dafoe Rd.,
>>>>>
>>>>> Animal Science/Entomology Bldg. Rm. 213
>>>>> Winnipeg, MB, Canada
>>>>> R3T 2N2
>>>>> Phone: (204) 474-7485
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> *From:* Entomological Collections Network Listserve <
>>>>> [log in to unmask]> *On Behalf Of *Tommy McElrath
>>>>> *Sent:* April 20, 2020 11:17 AM
>>>>> *To:* [log in to unmask]
>>>>> *Subject:* Re: Sex determination symbols
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> *Caution:* This message was sent from outside the University of
>>>>> Manitoba.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Rachel,
>>>>>
>>>>> I would love to get an actual reference for this as well. We have many
>>>>> bee specimens at INHS with the “☿” symbol that I had to double check
>>>>> was “worker/non-reproductive female”. As a coleopterist, when I started at
>>>>> INHS, it was first time coming across the symbol, and it will doubtless be
>>>>> unfamiliar to many students and volunteers who work in the collection, or
>>>>> with people who are transcribing determination labels.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> *--*
>>>>>
>>>>> *TOMMY MCELRATH*
>>>>> *Insect Collection Manager*
>>>>>
>>>>> Illinois Natural History Survey
>>>>> Prairie Research Institute
>>>>> University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
>>>>> 1816 S. Oak Street | M/C 652
>>>>> Champaign, IL 61820
>>>>> 217-300-5938 | [log in to unmask]
>>>>> insect.inhs.illinois.edu
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__insect.inhs.illinois.edu_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=bG9yNPcW9v54ikGPErnb2Mta31_0zTg4EzsIbhiIdsI&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>> [image: facebook]
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.facebook.com_INHSInsects_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=xBT8N9OA7avvgAXylXh-xVrGSvw17iszpi1Ugtyvtf8&e=>
>>>>>     [image: instagram]
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.instagram.com_inhsinsects_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=IxgSQAaTMlFB3WEBCTvfCW6YAdkadX7mibBdgQx2mAE&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=http-3A__illinois.edu_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1UFz1k6Lw_woKMepPXpAaeszGN76eoKnZ129V-iKNsg&s=2SKdUjZMkACZOiFnjCESfjC8HzdXMUV9d5Q21HoWRIE&e=>
>>>>>
>>>>> *Under the Illinois Freedom of Information Act any written
>>>>> communication to or from university employees regarding university business
>>>>> is a public record and may be subject to public disclosure. *
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> On Apr 20, 2020, at 11:10 AM, Rachel Hawkins <[log in to unmask]>
>>>>> wrote:
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Does anyone have a good reference source on the different types of sex
>>>>> determination symbols or caste determination symbols that are used in
>>>>> entomological collections? We've come across some older variations and want
>>>>> to make sure we are interpreting them consistently.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> For example: does this refer to male or female? ♁
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> I know there are some specific conventions in social insects as well
>>>>> and would be interested to hear from those folks as well.
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> To be clear, I'm asking about symbols like ♂, ♀, ☿,  ♃, etc. (many of
>>>>> which can also be found depicted here:
>>>>> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Planet-5Fsymbols&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=5DMrzQGQq9PRK0YZm1_QjTF_SeHQSLbCfc8W4GRMVTo&e= 
>>>>> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__en.wikipedia.org_wiki_Planet-5Fsymbols&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=F_Gt5Sv53a-t_-mqGHfB9ul5u_m25auJSGckxmo2n7s&s=XLXwYV-scIfQwZ9mt-HsuhjsCCtuk6Ny1Qzn-GPnvRQ&e=>
>>>>> )
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Thanks!
>>>>>
>>>>> Rachel
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> --
>>>>>
>>>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>>>>
>>>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>>>>
>>>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>>>>
>>>>> Harvard University
>>>>>
>>>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>>>>
>>>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>> --
>>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>>
>>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>>> Harvard University
>>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>>
>>>
>>>
>>> --
>>> Rachel L. Hawkins
>>>
>>> Curatorial Assistant
>>> Entomology Dept. and Pierce Lab
>>> Museum of Comparative Zoology
>>> Harvard University
>>> 26 Oxford St.
>>> Cambridge MA 02138
>>>
>>
>
> --
> Michael L. Ferro
> Collection Manager, Clemson University Arthropod Collection (CUAC)
> Dept. of Plant and Environmental Sciences
> 277 Poole Agricultural Center
> Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634-0310
> OFFICE: 307 Long Hall
> [log in to unmask] (preferred)
> [log in to unmask]
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> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__sites.google.com_site_clemsonarthropodcollection_&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=XKZULBEHfjCApUGX11Y8yfvjgdEkTimCcGlqut1IO_g&e=>
> Subject Editor: The Coleopterists Bulletin; Insecta Mundi
> Residue Photos:
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> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_EVknqBNJO28tfcHg2&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=ngPqG4L5aBPNryEmI4GrYwQIJ9nur9dMKjd9sJS0e8I&e=>
> https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_KWJY6VHoFybAq8FL2&d=DwIFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=1MJYLkuXV-cyjEqd_X1Z19baMU5ElpWa0qitxKPIoyQ&s=a7SCkeWuOZZ2YSI_yyFuevOxu7xsGgT0Ma4afhRRx50&e= 
> <https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__photos.app.goo.gl_KWJY6VHoFybAq8FL2&d=DwMFaQ&c=Cu5g146wZdoqVuKpTNsYHeFX_rg6kWhlkLF8Eft-wwo&r=-lUMCZ4RK28H4qvcd3vmEBuyVJHHG0OpDzFenR9wX-A&m=2-sTOjXexUh-Py8TWCYF3UdpTx6xEfQTm8DGwGl0WDE&s=FBBBh7QQpQCDUWYIPiWS8VjB63zD9tlFC5pw9i20qfI&e=>
>